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Further are to be mentioned a number of adjectives of B N A which habe [sic] been found from Greek nouns and to which the ending eus has been attached, as carpeus, laryngeus, oasophageus [sic], etc. This is followed by a list of words that Triepel thinks are "not free of objection" accompanied by "such terms which, according to my opinion, might be substituted.

Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Ask Question. Asked 1 year, 7 months ago. Viewed times. Triepel says It is a fact established long ago that the anatomical technical language is a playground for barbarisms, ungainly words and even expressions which are an offense against elementary rules of word-formation. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook.

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Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. Featured on Meta. Unicorn Meta Zoo 9: How do we handle problem users? Linked 6. Related 7. Ly : should be replaced by j , for example hej instead of hely place ,. The article used a mixture of Latin and German terms, revealing the extensive usage of Latin instead of German terms for several chemical substances.

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Saxon physicians preferred to take inspiration from German-language treatises, rather than construct new words borrowing from classical languages. Their main contribution was imposition of Hochdeutsch as the language used in the scholarly publications. Hungarians and Romanians, by contrast, were more inventive. Nyulas and other Hungarian physicians constructed new words by importing folk expressions into scientific terminology.

Only a few of the words invented by Nyulas are still in use today, however. The terms for which he provided neologisms came from the two fields in which he specialised, mathematics and chemistry, thus showing the influence of Lavoisier upon the development of pharmaceutical terminology in Transylvania.

The borrowing of new words was linked to nationalistic discourses. Piuariu-Molnar wrote his Romanian grammar and dictionary in German, and the orthography he proposed is Germanizing. The issue of medical terminology and the practices of borrowing from other languages are thus an indicator of the intellectual background and the languages studied by these scholars.

Those who had a classical education and were involved in contemporary cultural programmes preferred to borrow new words from Latin and Greek in order to describe new medical terms. In cases where the target audience was the general public or barbers and midwives rather than a qualified medical personnel surgeons or pharmacists , the medical terms used were less complex.

Schoolteachers or priests who translated medical brochures or wrote short medical articles in almanacs used paraphrases rather than a specialist medical vocabulary.

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The aim was to be understood by a wider array of readers. These publications were the most widespread form of support for the Habsburg court and the medical and clerical elite. In the struggle to impose a particular language used in scholarly publication, Hungarians, Saxons and Romanians used both patriotic and pragmatic arguments. This patriotic rhetoric was expressed in every preface of the medical books published by physicians.

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Such works, whether originals or translations, also included discourses in support of the constitution of a national language and identity, and an expression of loyalty to the House of Habsburg and the local authorities who financed the publication of the books. The discourse of improvement was thus coupled with more pragmatic arguments, namely the importance of a healthy and wealthy population. In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by programmes for improving the vernacular.

This general European tendency was emulated within the Habsburg Empire, which is renowned for its complex political, confessional and ethnic character. The Transylvanian case study undertaken here has shown how both codified medical language and everyday language were constructed and enriched by the many medical books and pamphlets published by the initiative of the Habsburg authorities and by private agents.

Such efforts contributed to the eradication of diseases by educating medical professionals on the one hand and the population on the other, with the help of medical publications. Numerous medical books, textbooks and articles in journals or almanacs were published either in German or Latin by German and Hungarian physicians working in the medicals schools of the Monarchy.

Such individuals represented the central medical bureaucracy, since the university medical faculties and Lyceums were part of the Habsburg health administration.

These physicians utilised a language which had no correlate in the several vernaculars spoken in the provinces of the Empire where medical works were to be used and read. Thus, physicians turned to translating and original publication in the provincial vernaculars in a bid to facilitate the communication of central medical programmes to local inhabitants.

Along with local priests, they became active agents in the recreation not only of a codified scientific and medical language but also of the spoken vernaculars. The enrichment of vernaculars within the Habsburg Empire benefited from the comprehensive and centralised programme that aimed to improve public health through encouraging the cultivation of the sciences and medicine implemented not only by the state the Habsburg and local authorities but also the local intellectual elite.

Conversely, the communication of medical knowledge in the vernacular contributed to the construction of national languages in the region, due to the large number of books that were published, and the numerous neologisms their authors had to coin. Literature written in the language of the nationalities living in the monarchy contributed to a further differentiation of the ethnic groups living in Transylvania.

It also helped support their arguments in their fight for political rights as in the Romanian case. Thus, medical and natural historical literature both enriched the spoken language and helped to define national identity. The new medical books were discussed and debated at meetings of provincial and metropolitan learned societies. Publication and translation were thus acts of sociability, providing an opportunity for collaboration and collegiality between intellectual elites divided in the political sphere by their divergent political and national interests.

Physicians, as members of the learned elite, claimed that the cultivation of the arts and sciences, especially medicine, would increase the number and quality of the population. They would use their medical knowledge to fight diseases such as plague, smallpox, syphilis, scurvy and goitre, which crippled and handicapped people, transforming them into a burden for society. Medical pamphlets and books thus served to reform both literary and spoken languages, and enhanced the social status of physicians as well as the prestige of the nation as a whole.

I am grateful to Emma C. Kamusella National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

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Teodora Daniela Sechel: moc. Abstract In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by efforts to improve the vernaculars.

Introduction The effort to build a centralised medical administration and a network of medical schools in all provinces of the Monarchy fuelled an initiative to assure a uniform medical education. The great principality of Transylvania: social structure and spoken languages Transylvania was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy, situated in its south-eastern part, ruled by a governor appointed by the Habsburg Emperor either among army generals or among local Saxon and Hungarian elites.

Open in a separate window. Conclusion In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by programmes for improving the vernacular. Footnotes 1 Evans Fund Acta generalia Printed sources Ash, Mitchell Science, nationalism and multi culturalism in the late Habsburg Monarchy — A preliminary overview of the issues.

A Generale Normativum in Re Sanitatis, Gondolat; Budapest: Innsbruck, Abt. Sprachwiss; Innsbruck: Geschichte der Ungarischen Sprache. The Hungarian language. Binder, J. Argumentum; Budapest: Bochmann K. Akademie Verlag; Berlin: Bologa, V. Bologa V. Burke P. Languages and communities in early modern Europe. Clemens A. Typ; Buda: Culcer A. Clujul Medical. Evans R. Language and state building: The case of the Habsburg Monarchy. Austrian History Yearbook. The politics of language and the languages of politics: Latin and the vernaculars in eighteenth-century Hungary. In: Scott H. Cultures of power in Europe during the long eighteenth century.

Cambridge University Press; Cambridge: Ferro, J.

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Gherman A. Dacia; Cluj-Napoca: Gyarmathi, S.

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Affinitas linguae hungaricae cum linguis fennicae originis: grammatice demonstrata; vocabularia dialectorum tataricarum et slavicarum cum hungarica comparata. Gottingae: Dieterich. Gyarmathi S. Benjamins; Amsterdam: Grammatical proof of the affinity of the Hungarian language with languages of Fennic origin.

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