Manual Trends in Ambient Intelligent Systems: The Role of Computational Intelligence

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It found its implementation in such areas as health [1] [2] , sport [3] , administration [4] , business and education [5]. Its increasing demand is indicated as a desirable involvement in applications [6] supporting care services based on modern technologies. The AmI definitions vary. Summarizing the information [10] [11] , MIT cited in [12] -[14] , the current research indicates that the idea behind AmI refers to the set of interconnecting devices working together in the intelligent way.

The devices facilitate an electronic or digital environment. For example the properties of ubiquity and disappearance refer to challenges of design interactions in future smart environments [7]. The ubiquity refers to an increasing number of computers around us, their incorporation in different parts of our environments and becoming a part of our life by maintaining everyday routines. The disappearance is explained as tendency of computing devices to get smaller and disappear hiding in a textile surroundings us.

The AmI has been understood as a set of entities with different arrangements such as Service-Oriented Architecture [15] , structured context information AmbiNet [16] , Agent-based architecture [17] [18] managing different technologies e. Another theme refers to a conceptual model [28] comprising layers of sensors and actuators, a network and a middleware, a device, a service and an AmI application. Alternatively AmI was realized as middleware comprising different services and facilitating interactions of different parts [15] [29] -[31]. Further AmI-based interface is presented as adaptive interface [32] for complex AmI environments sharing resources hardware, networks and knowledge ; or providing a generation of user interfaces for Ambient Assisted Living services based on an interaction framework [33].

An AmI context-awareness specifies a nature of a context as spatiotemporal, environmental, personal and social [34]. Ambient Intelligence have been developed by some companies Opt. To benefit the consumer, a substance of Ambient Intelligence should be attached to a physical entity or an environment. Overview of the existing AmI examples showed that previously the notions of AmI environments were used for testing.

Further, there were no indications of AmI as a domain on its own rights. There also were no indications of a standard approach to the development of AmI-based software systems. As things stand above: Previously Ambient Intelligence was presented as a vague technology-based essence. It was understood as comprising element or a summation of elements or disciplines. Having comprehended the information about AmI the current research provides its own definition of Ambient Intelligence as:. Ambient intelligence is Artificial Intelligent Technology-based Environment providing responses on the dynamically detected requests and satisfying the predefined tasks in the expected way and in the expected time.

Furthermore, Ambient Intelligence was articulated by AmI 5 as a subject of expansion into wider areas. In response to such statement the researches provide different ideas, examples of which comprise an idea of attracting SE MDD in particular into the development of AmI. Such idea was articulated at AmI Finally the research question is clarified as focusing on proposition of the standard MDD to the development of AmI systems.

The current research identifies context of models as a clear set of formal elements that describe something being developed for a specific purpose and can be analyzed using various methods [45].

Engineering model must include the characteristics of Abstraction, Understandability, Accuracy, Predictiveness and Inexpensiveness. The developments are based on a Platform-Independent Model PIM 7 of the application or specification of business functionality and behavior. OMG clarifies principles of MDA as 1 the understanding of systems for enterprise solution laying in the models with well-defined notations; 2 the architectural framework of models, comprising layers and transformations structure, can serve the purpose of building systems; 3 the tools-based basis for an automotive models integration and their transformation; 4 this Model-Driven approach is to be based on industry standards, openness to consumers and encouraging vendors competitions.

DSLs should have notations, which are understandable by the people involved into a development. The current research sees involvement of MDD as a framework supporting a step-by-step development based on a purposely developed methodology. Further, SE offers two types of methodologies referring to a step-by-step development process. It also includes such approaches to a general software development, a development of AmI software systems and DSL. Other examples [14] and [53] outline a process of building AmI environments: starting from needs of sensors and devices for surrounding the environmental inhabitants with technology, where sensors collect different context information which is to be transmitted by a network and pre-processed by middleware.

The examples do not describe a sequence of the activities for building AmI environments. Other examples comprise cooperative system design [54] and design framework [13]. The example refers to rapid prototyping of creating an AmI demonstrator [29]. The current research considers this as a request to a new methodology. Despite the variety of the approaches, AmI scientists [56] [57] state that clear methodology for digital ecosystem or AmI design does not exists yet.

The methodologies proposed for the development of DSLs comprise several activities [58] , [59]. The current research agrees that prior to the language development the domain should be studied, but it does not agree that the development should start from the syntax definition. In the current research opinion, the developer should study domain initially. It should be followed by an extraction of the semantics corresponding to the appropriate syntax, expressed in different concrete notations.

For the current research purpose the notion of DSL is preferable to general purpose programming languages as it can provide domain-specific notations to be used for modeling of the different stages of the development. The content of the stages should be discussed with customers and stakeholders. Despite approaches and methodologies for AmI-related development are already indicated by some of the authors, the other provide request to a methodology for AmI-related developments. The last indicates a lack of models and software engineering practice helping in managing of a AmI development lifecycle [34].

It points out on needs of methodologies for development; on possible involvement of direct software engineering methods suitable for the development of request-response systems with strictly defined behavior. Some researches show tools [60] used for developments in AmI such as Ambi Graphs. The syntaxes comprise such notations as boxes, rhombus and arrows. Authors indicated a necessity of the context modeling, analysis and reasoning cited in [61]. Models are good for expressing requirements, reasoning and discovering anomalies, inconsistency and incompleteness.

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It can be supported by the appropriate tools; and methodology comprising the set of steps necessary for the development of AmI systems. Believing that the development of AmI-E can be unified, standardized and presented as modeling process based on Software Engineering notions of MDA and MDD the current research generates the research hypothesis that:. Such hypothesis refers to an inference of a way dedicated to a development of AmI based system from scratch. Focusing on finding a common way of the communication among the stakeholders during the AmI development process the current research puts forward an idea of models.

Their semantics should be identified by ontologies.

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Their syntaxes should be expressed in DSL notations. It was generated by the organizations interpreting MDA as an approach to application design and implementation.

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It refers to a realization of the requirements comprising models and tools supporting their production. This idea is developed by the current research. The hypothesis corresponds to the appropriate theory that MDD is a right approach to the development of AmI-based systems. The current research sees the proof of the theory through a conjunctive consideration of two research fields comprising SE and AmI. The first of them serves the development of the second. The intended results of the development imply to bring the benefit to the AmI development stakeholders, whether they are developers or not.

This benefit would provide the user with a fully developed flow of the development of AmI applications finalized in the code realization , supplied with AmI-dedicated language and realized tools. From the original idea of MDA the current research adapted only the layered arrangement of solving a problem. The every level of A-MDA is dedicated to a task e. Comparison of two architectures is shown in Table 2. A-MDA does not pursues the purpose of MDA producing a model of the immediate lower level; but pursues a single purpose of comprehension and sufficiency of needs for modeling and building of AmI environments:.

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Table 2. It comprises an obtaining of the DSL semantics, a concrete syntax and its supporting tools. The process corresponds to a methodology outlining the sequence of activities. They start from analysis of a domain with extracting a vocabulary refer to ontology , continue through design modeling and finalizes by realization of the supporting tools. The realization of the current research argument comprises two perspectives. They refer to an obtaining mea-.


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Figure 1. Figure 2. It occupies three bottom layers M0 - M2 and comprises activities of bottom-up from M0 to M2 and top-dawn from M2 to M0 directions.